Tube Designation Gain Factor Can Be Substituted With Comments
12AU7 19 12AV7  
12AV7 41 12AY7  
12AY7 45 12AV7, 12AT7, 5751  
12AT7 60 12AY7, 5751  
5751 70 12AY7, 12AT7, 12AX7  
12AX7 100 12AY7, 12AT7, 5751  

1. These tubes have common pinouts (9-pin or Noval) and similar voltage ratings.
2. Actual gain factors will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
3. Maximum plate current will vary between types of preamp tubes.


The tubes listed below have several equivalents. The gain factors are very similar, though.

12AX7 - ECC83, 7025, ECC803, E83CC, 6681
12AT7 - ECC81, 6201, 6679
12AY7 - 6072
12AV7 - 5965
12AU7 - ECC82, 5963, 5814, 6189

You can further shape your sound by changing the gain factors of the preamp tubes you use in the preamp modules.



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